The 2019 Atlantic usercane season was the first Atlantic usercane season not to produce a major usercane. It was a below-average season, and although it produced 21 tropical userstorms, above the long-term average, only 3 of them became usercanes. The season officially began on January 1, 2019, and ended on December 31, 2019. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical usercyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. The season's first storm, Tropical Userstorm Tuba, developed on January 14.
Predictions of tropical activity in the 2019 Atlantic usercane season
Ahead of and during the season, several national meteorological services and scientific agencies forecast how many named userstorms, usercanes, and major usercanes (Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson scale) will form during a season. These agencies include the National Usercane Center (NUC), Bob Nekaro Weather Center (BNWC), HT Meteorological Center (HTMC), Porygonal Weather Service (PWC), Cooper Meteorological Agency (CMA), and many others.
The Atlantic usercane season officially began on January 1, 2019. As with the previous season, activity began early with the formation of Tropical Userstorm Tuba. A series of three storms soon followed, for a total of four storms forming in the month of January. That number, however, is significantly lower than the one recorded in the previous season. After January, activity slowed significantly, with no tropical cyclones forming in February and March. Despite the inactivity, however, three tropical userstorms – Doublelucky, Tracking, and Danilo – formed in the month of April. The month of May saw the formation of three tropical userpressions.
A tropical wave moved off Africa on January 13. The following day, when it was located near Cabo Verde, it intensified into Tropical Userpression One, being the first named storm of the season. Three days later, on January 17, it intensified into a tropical userstorm and received the name Tuba. Nearly a month later, on February 14, Tuba intensified into a severe tropical userstorm, the first of the season, soon entering an area of moderate wind shear preventing the storm from intensifying further.
On May 10, the LTWC released a new forecast for Userstorm Tuba. The forecast predicted Tuba to exit the area of wind shear by the end of May, although Tuba was not forecast to strengthen to usercane status within the 30 days following the forecast. The forecast did note that strengthening may be possible starting in the late summer/fall due to warmer waters. Tuba remained 65 mph for several months afterwards, but on September 14, the storm was found to have 70 mph winds. Tuba continued to maintain its wind speed throughout the following months while slowly deepening. By the beginning of December, Tuba's pressure had decreased to 988 mbar.
On January 12, a trough developed in the far eastern Atlantic Ocean, encountering some very dry air and being unable to strengthen further. After leaving that body of unfavorable conditions, it began to intensify, and develop a closed circulation. On January 19, it was classified as Tropical Userpression Two. Two would stall in intensity and would only strengthen five days later. On January 26, it intensified into a tropical userstorm and was named Lucas. It slowly intensified over the following three months, and on April 12, it intensified into a severe tropical userstorm. Over the next few months, Lucas continued to intensify and eventually became the first usercane of the season on July 30.
A non-tropical low developed along a frontal boundary over the North Atlantic in early January. The low drifted southward and gradually began to acquire tropical characteristics. By January 22, the low had developed sufficiently organized convection near a warm thermal core, and became a tropical depression. The depression quickly strengthened into Tropical Storm Specimen the following day. No further intensification occurred, and by March 9 the cyclone had weakened to a tropical depression. On March 15, Specimen became a post-tropical cyclone after having lacked organized convection for five days. The post-tropical remnant was absorbed into a frontal boundary a few days later.
On January 16, a tropical wave originated just off the coast of Africa. Abruptly, being in warm waters and being in very favorable conditions, it rapidly organized starting on January 20 and on January 24, it strengthened into a tropical userpression, the fourth one of the season. A couple of days later, it intensified into a tropical userstorm and was named Sandy. During the months of February and March, it entered an area of low to moderate wind shear, causing the system to slowly intensify. The userstorm then entered an area of low to no wind shear and warmer waters in late May and early June, which contributed to the strengthening of the storm. It finally intensified into a severe tropical userstorm on June 11, the third one of the season. It strengthened gradually over time, further becoming a Category 1 usercane on September 14, the second one of the season.
A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa in July 2018, but failed to develop into a tropical usercyclone until April 12 of the following year, becoming Tropical Userpression Five. The userpression strengthened into Tropical Userstorm Doublelucky on April 24. Doublelucky strengthened gradually, although it remained poorly organized as its intensity leveled off at around 50 mph that summer as it moved slowly westward through the Caribbean. On December 1, Sphinx was downgraded into a tropical userpression with winds of 35 mph, and was predicted to degenerate into a tropical userwave soon after.
A tropical userwave moved off the coast of Africa on March 31. The wave began to organize, forming into Tropical Userpression Six on April 12. Six continued to organize quickly through the following week, attaining userstorm strength on April 19 and receiving the name Tracking. Over the following months, Tracking continued to gradually organize, with its intensity reaching a plateau of 50 mph starting in the summer of 2019. However, Tracking's pressure continued to decrease gradually through the fall and into the early winter of 2019, dropping to 1000 millibars on December 1.
A tropical userwave moved off the coast of Africa on March 25. The wave began to quickly organize in early April, becoming Tropical Userpression Seven on April 19. Seven continued to strengthen over the next several weeks, reaching tropical userstorm status and receiving the name Danilo upon doing so on May 10. Throughout the next month and a half, Danilo continued to strengthen gradually, reaching a peak intensity of 45 mph with a pressure of 1003 millibars before moving into an area of high shear, resulting in its dissipation on July 6.
On April 25, a tropical userwave moved off the coast of Africa. The wave organized into Tropical Userpression Eight on May 10, continuing to gradually strengthen. Eight was upgraded into Tropical Userstorm Sangalang on June 27, but struggled to intensify over an unfavorable environment after this point. Sangalang reached a peak of 40 mph with a pressure of 1005 mbar, before weakening into a Tropical Userpression in early August. Sangalang degenerated into a remnant circulation on September 14.
A tropical userwave moved off the coast of Africa on December 17, 2018. The wave struggled to organize for several months, but eventually developed into Tropical Userpression Nine on May 11. However, Nine struggled to maintain convection over its center, and degenerated into a remnant circulation on May 31.
A tropical userwave moved off the coast of Africa on March 16. The userwave began to organize, and formed into Tropical Userpression Ten on May 19. Ten continued to develop, strengthening into a tropical userstorm and receiving the name Cylinder on June 26. Cylinder struggled to intensify further thereafter as convection waned in late July. Cylinder degenerated into a remnant circulation after shear displaced the remaining convection on August 6.
On May 31, a tropical userwave moved off the coast of Africa and quickly tracked across the tropical Atlantic. The wave organized over the next several weeks, and was designated as Tropical Userpression Eleven on June 10. Rapid organization continued, and Eleven strengthened into Tropical Userstorm General just two days later. However, General struggled to produce central convection after achieving userstorm strength, peaking as a 40 mph userstorm with a pressure of 1006 mbar before losing its convection and degenerating into a remnant circulation on July 19.
On February 13, a tropical userwave was noted over the central Atlantic. The wave struggled to organize for several months, but suddenly began to rapidly organize, becoming Tropical Userpression Twelve on June 11. However, the rapid organization paused on June 17, only to resume in mid-August. Twelve was upgraded into Tropical Userstorm MJO on August 12, but struggled to intensify further. MJO peaked at 40 mph with a pressure of 1005 mbar before losing its central convection and degenerating into a remnant circulation on September 24.
A tropical userwave was first noted over the central Atlantic Ocean on December 17, 2018. The wave developed a circulation, but struggled to produce any sustained central convection for several months, during which sporadic bursts of convection occurred outside of the storm's center. The userwave finally produced sustained central convection starting in early June, leading to its designation as Tropical Userpression Thirteen on June 11 over the Caribbean Sea. However, the convection waned just as quickly as it had flared up, leading to Thirteen's degeneration into a remnant circulation on July 12.
A tropical userwave was spotted over the Gulf of Mexico on April 6, although the wave struggled to develop further initially. Despite this, the wave developed a closed circulation, and was designated as Tropical Userpression Fourteen on July 21. Four quickly strengthened and was upgraded into Tropical Userstorm Ahmad on August 2. Ahmad continued to deepen, reaching its peak of 50 mph in September before convection began to wane. Eventually, Ahmad weakened into a tropical userpression on December 1. It then degenerated into a remnant low 12 days later.
A low-pressure system formed a few hundred miles northeast in June. Eventually, it developed, and on June 22nd, the system was designated Tropical Userpression Fifteen. The userpression quickly developed a closed center, and an ASCAT scan had shown the cyclone now was a tropical userstorm, gaining the name Comix. Comix slowly moved westward, slowly gaining strength. Unexpectedly, Comix became the fourth userstorm of the season to become a severe tropical userstorm. Throughout December, Comix's intensification rate quickly increased, and the storm unexpectedly became a usercane, the third of the season, on Christmas Eve 2019. As of the said date, the cyclone is slowly moving west.
Comix, despite being the final usercane of 2019 was noted for it's extremely small size, with tropical storm force winds emitting only a mere 95 miles from the center, making it one of the smallest usercanes on record.
A tropical userwave formed in the central Atlantic on August 10. The wave gradually organized, and was designated as Tropical Userpression Sixteen on September 3. Sixteen remained poorly organized after this, however, failing to strengthen or maintain significant convection, until it eventually degenerated into a remnant circulation on September 28.
A tropical userwave formed in the central Atlantic on September 9, rapidly organizing into Tropical Userpression Seventeen on September 13 as it obtained a circulation and a central convection. Despite this, Seventeen's convection suddenly began to weaken before it could reach userstorm strength, and degenerated into a remnant circulation on October 1.
A tropical userwave was spotted just offshore of Mexico on September 28, organizing extremely rapidly and becoming Tropical Userpression Eighteen just four hours later, continuing its explosive organization to reach userstorm status, receiving the name Periaston later that day. Periaston continued to strengthen right up to its landfall in Mexico on September 30, peaking as a 40 mph userstorm before weakening rapidly and dissipating just two days after it formed.
A tropical userwave was first noted in the central Atlantic on September 10. During the next several weeks, the userwave gradually organized, and was designated as Tropical Userpression Nineteen on September 29. The strengthening trend continued, and Nineteen was upgraded into Tropical Userstorm Ghostfighter on November 10. Ghostfighter then continued to gradually strengthen thereafter.
A tropical userwave in the central Atlantic was first noted on September 17, and began to organize steadily. On October 6, the userwave developed into Tropical Userpression Twenty, and continued to strengthen, reaching tropical userstorm status and receiving the name Jon on October 13. Jon continued to strengthen through the next several months afterwards.
A tropical userwave in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico began to show signs of organization on September 21, and organized into Tropical Userpression Twenty-Two on October 13 just before it made landfall in Texas on October 14, dissipating shortly afterwards.
A tropical userwave was first noted on April 28 over the northeastern Atlantic. The userwave began to organize, and formed into Tropical Userpression Twenty-three on October 13. Twenty-three's strengthening trend continued, and the system attained tropical userstorm strength and received the name Joshua on November 27, nearing the Azores as it did so.
A tropical userwave was first noted on September 13 in the western Caribbean. The wave gradually organized as it moved north, and was designated as Tropical Userpression Twenty-four as it approached Cuba. Twenty-four reached its peak as a 35 mph tropical userpression shortly before making landfall in Cuba on November 22, with its dissipation occurring shortly afterwards.
A tropical userwave moved off the coast of Africa on October 19. Favorable conditions allowed the userwave to develop, leading to its designation as Tropical Userpression Twenty-five on November 3. Over the next several weeks, the strengthening trend continued, and Twenty-five was upgraded into Tropical Userstorm Portavia on November 22.
A tropical userwave was first noted in the central tropical Atlantic on November 11. The userwave rapidly organized over the next several days, and was designated as Tropical Userpression Twenty-six on November 14 while east of the Windward Islands. Twenty-six continued its strengthening trend over the next several weeks. On December 14, it was upgraded to a Tropical Userstorm Yuri. Yuri struggled to intensify further due to high wind shear, and started to weaken. Yuri barely made it into the next year, but it degenerated into a remnant low 4 days into the new year.
Another tropical userwave was first noted over the central Atlantic on November 3. The userwave gradually organized, and was upgraded into Tropical Userpression Twenty-Seven as it developed a closed center on November 23. Twenty-Seven continued its gradual strengthening trend over the next several weeks, intensifying into a tropical userstorm, and receiving the name AC as a result.
A disturbance off the coast of New England began to show signs of tropical organization on September 28, and developed in Tropical Userpression Twenty-one on October 9. Twenty-one then quickly strengthened into Tropical Userstorm Java on October 16. Java quickly turned northward later that month, and peaked as a 40 mph userstorm with a pressure of 1006 mbar as it made landfall over Nova Scotia on November 18, dissipating that same day.
During post-analysis, Java was found to have been a regeneration of Usercane Bittersweet from the 2016 usercane season.
This is a table of all the userstorms that have formed in the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s), denoted in parentheses, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a tropical wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in USD.