2022 Atlantic hurricane season (Prism55)
2022 full season track prism55.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedApril 22, 2022
Last system dissipatedJanuary 4, 2023
Strongest storm
NameTobias (Most intense hurricane in the Atlantic basin)
 • Maximum winds215 mph (345 km/h)
 • Lowest pressure874 mbar (hPa; 25.81 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions40 (Record high)
Total storms34 (Record high)
Hurricanes22 (Record high)
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
15 (Record high)
Total fatalities67,073 total (Record high)
Total damage$1.271 trillion (2022 USD)
(Record high)
Atlantic hurricane seasons
2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024

The 2022 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history. The impact of the season was widespread and catastrophic, with a total of 67,073 deaths and $1.271 trillion in damage, cementing it in history as both the deadliest and costliest Atlantic hurricane season on record. The season featured several powerful landfalls, including 6 major hurricane landfalls on the US, setting a new record. The season features 34 named storms, 22 hurricanes, 15 major hurricanes, 11 Category 4 hurricanes and 5 Category 5 hurricanes, breaking all previous activity records, most of which were set by the 2005 season. Of these storms, the most damage was caused by Fiona, Ian, Martin, Owen, Shary, Tobias, Virginie, Walter and Eta, all of which made landfalls as major hurricanes. Two Category 5 hurricanes made landfall on the US in one season, the highest number on record.

Furthermore, the season's storms broke several intensity and longevity records. In July, Hurricane Fiona became one of the most intense July hurricanes on record. From August 3 to August 7, an exception period of activity occurred, with 9 tropical cyclones developing within that timeframe (7 named storms and 2 tropical depressions). Hurricane Martin set numerous records for low-latitude intensity, longevity and prolonged intensity, becoming the longest lived tropical cyclone worldwide and generating the highest ACE of any tropical cyclone on record. Hurricane Owen became the second Category 5 hurricane of the season, before striking Alabama as a strong Category 4 hurricane. In early September, Hurricane Shary became the second most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Atlantic, before being pushed to the 3rd place later on in the season. A few days after Shary, Hurricane Tobias explosively deepened into the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record, attaining a minimum pressure of 874 mb (25.81 inHg) and a peak windspeed of 215 mph (345 km/h) before striking Florida with winds of 205 mph, causing catastrophic and widespread damage. Tobias caused over 48,000 fatalities in the US, becoming the deadliest Atlantic tropical cyclone on record. Hurricane Virginie struck Florida a few days prior to Tobias as a Category 4 hurricane, while Walter stalled over New York City for two days, causing devastating flooding and damage. In late September, Hurricane Alpha made landfall on Spain as a Category 1 hurricane, while Hurricane Beta made landfall over Panama as a Category 4 hurricane and crossed over into the East Pacific, becoming the southernmost major hurricane landfall on record in the Atlantic. In late October, Hurricane Eta made landfall over Miami as an upper-end Category 4 hurricane before skirting the East Coast as a major hurricane, becoming the costliest tropical cyclone on record, with nearly $370 billion in damage attributed to it. In November, Hurricane Lambda became only the second November Category 5 hurricane after the 1932 Cuba hurricane.

Most of the forecasts ahead of the season predicted an above average season. After the very quick start to the season, forecasters upped their predictions. Even then, the predictions fell short of the actual activity by a large margin.

The season's economic effects were widespread and devastating beyond expectations. Several regions were uninhabitable after the season, including areas of Florida completely leveled by Tobias, areas of the Yucatán Peninsula, which was repeatedly struck by intense storms, and several more. The country of Haiti was set back nearly 100 years back in terms of development in some areas due to the slow movement and torrential rainfall of Fiona, which killed over 5,000 people in the country. The country of Dominican Republic was dealt a powerful blow after Martin made landfall there as a Category 4 hurricane, causing devastating damage. Puerto Rico also sustained severe damage from Martin, worsening the effects of storms of previous seasons on the island, including Maria of 2017, Ernesto of 2018 and Melissa of 2019, which all affected the country as Category 4 hurricanes. Jamaica also sustained extensive damage, mostly from the storms Shary and Fiona. Shary affected the southern coast of the island nation nearing peak intensity, causing over 2,000 deaths on the island alone. Fiona caused 400 deaths there earlier in the season. Overall, the season had a massive impact on the cultures, communities and nations of the Atlantic, many of which were changed for many decades after the season ended.


Hurricane Walter (2022)Hurricane Tobias (2022)

Season summary

The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30. Despite this, the first storm of the season, Alex, developed in April, the first storm to do so since Arlene in 2017. The last storm of the season, Nu, dissipated on December 28, although two more short-lived depressions formed afterwards. Hurricane Mu, however, persisted into January 2023 and was the last storm of the season to dissipate. This made it only the third time in recorded history, after the 1954 and 2005 seasons, that a storm spanned two calendar years.

April, May & June

On April 22, a tropical depression formed near the Leeward Islands and tracked northwestwards. A day later, the storm strengthened into a tropical storm and received the name Alex, becoming only the 3rd named storm in April on record, behind Ana of 2003 and Arlene on 2017. Alex reached peak intensity soon after formation, and weakened as it turned northwards. After weakening to a tropical depression, Alex continued tracking generally northwards until being absorbed into an extratropical cyclone on April 28.

May featured no tropical cyclones, although 2 invests were observed in the month.

June featured one named storm. The storm developed from an early-season tropical wave on June 14. A day later, it was upgraded to a tropical storm and received the name Bonnie. The storm passed through the Windward Islands and took on an unusual southern track, affecting the northern coasts of Venezuela and Colombia, while passing directly over the ABC Islands. Bonnie recurved northwards under the presence of a ridge and weakened as it moved into an area of wind shear; the storm dissipated June 20. Bonnie caused moderate to heavy damage to areas it affected along its path. The storm caused 72 deaths and $400 million in damage.



Hurricanes Karl (right) and Lisa (left) undergoing a Fujiwhara interaction






TS Alex
TS Bonnie
TS Colin
TD Four
C1 Danielle
TS Earl
C4 Fiona
C3 Gaston
C1 Hermine
C5 Ian
C2 Julia
TD Twelve
C3 Karl
C2 Lisa
TD Fifteen
C4 Martin
TS Nicole
C5 Owen
C4 Paula
C3 Richard
C5 Shary
TD Twenty-Two
C5 Tobias
C4 Virginie
C3 Walter
C2 Alpha
C4 Beta
C1 Gamma
TS Delta
TS Epsilon
TS Zeta
C4 Eta
C1 Theta
TS Iota
TS Kappa
C5 Lambda
C1 Mu
TD Thirty-nine
TD Forty

Tropical Storm Alex

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Alex 2022 Prism55.png TS Alex 2022 Track.png
DurationApril 22 – April 27
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1003 mbar (hPa)

On April 22, the NHC began monitoring an area of low pressure that developed roughly 150 mi (240 km) east of the Leeward Islands. The area quickly organized, amidst unseasonably favorable conditions, and on the same day the NHC upgraded it to a tropical depression 140 miles east of Antigua.

The depression moved north-westwards for much of the day. On April 23, the storm began turning northwards, and at the same time it strengthened into a tropical storm, receiving the name Alex and becoming the first named storm of the season. The storm changed course again on the same day, now moving eastwards and away from the Leeward Islands while strengthening slowly. Alex reached peak intensity on April 24, with winds of 50 mph (80 km/h) and a central pressure of 1,003 mb (29.6 inHg). Soon after, the storm began rapidly weakening in response to increased shear in the area, and degenerated into a tropical depression on the same day.

At the same time, the storm began moving northwards under the influence of a ridge. The depression raced northwards for the next few days, slowly weakening as it encountered cooler waters while remaining under shear. On April 27, the depression degenerated into a remnant low, as it moved westwards across the Atlantic. The low persisted for another day, before being absorbed into a larger extratropical cyclone on April 28.

Tropical Storm Bonnie

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Bonnie 2022 Prism55.png TS Bonnie 2022 Track.png
DurationJune 14 – June 20
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  998 mbar (hPa)

The origins of Bonnie can be traced to an early-season tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Africa on June 6. Tracking across the Atlantic, development was limited due to shear in the open Atlantic. However, as the wave moved closer towards the Caribbean Sea, shear slowly decreased, allowing the wave to slowly develop over waters nearly 2 °C above the average June temperatures. Nearing the Caribbean Sea, the wave began developing a circulation. Based on continuously improving satellite appearance, the NHC upgraded the wave to a tropical depression on June 14, while it was around 160 mi (260 km) east of the island of Barbados.

The newly formed depression continued strengthening slowly, as it passed slightly north of Barbados late on June 14. Early the next day, the depression passed between the islands of St. Lucia and St. Vincent. Mid-day on June 15, the depression was upgraded to a tropical storm based on satellite appearance, and was assigned the name Bonnie, the second of the season.

At around the same time, Bonnie began turning east-southeastwards, slowly approaching the northern coast of Venezuela and Colombia. The storm moved close to the coast, producing torrential rainfall and strong winds. On June 17, it began turning northwards, and made successive landfalls on the islands of Bonaire, Curaçao and Aruba, and skirted the Paraguaná Peninsula. Late on the same day, Bonnie reached peak intensity, with winds of 60 mph (97 km/h) and a central pressure of 998 mb (29.5 inHg). The following day, Bonnie slowed down its forward movement considerably, while turning northwards and later westwards.

Bonnie accelerated again on June 19 as it tracked northwestward towards Puerto Rico. Early on June 20, Bonnie weakened into a tropical depression due to increased shear degrading the storm's structure. The depression continued moving on its general path, and it degenerated into a sheared remnant low late on June 20. The remnants of Bonnie skirted Puerto Rico, before moving out to the sea where they became unrecognizable.

Along its path, Bonnie caused severe damage to several areas. In the Windward Islands, especially Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Vincent, the storm toppled many trees, damaged roofs and caused mudslides. 2 people died on St. Lucia during the storm, and one died on Barbados after being blown into a river and drowning. In Venezuela and Colombia, Bonnie dropped torrential rainfall along the northern coasts, causing severe mudslides. Numerous of people died across Venezuela due to the mudslides and debris flows. On the ABC Islands, Bonnie killed 10 people. Torrential rainfall and strong winds destroyed roofs, toppled trees and surging waters destroyed bridges.

Overall, Bonnie caused 72 deaths and $400 million in damage. It was considered the worst disaster to affect the country of Venezuela since the 1999 Vargas tragedy.

Tropical Storm Colin

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Colin 2022 Prism55.png TS Colin 2022 Track.png
DurationJuly 3 – July 6
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1007 mbar (hPa)

On July 2, the NHC began monitoring an area of low pressure east of the Lesser Antilles for possible tropical or subtropical development. Located within relatively favorable conditions, the low pressure area consolidated at a pace far exceeding most predictions, and on July 3, just 10 hours after first being noticed, it was classified as a tropical depression by the NHC, based on improved satellite appearance.

The newly formed depression moved on an unusual southward track, and quickly strengthened, acquiring tropical storm force winds just 10 hours later. Based on this, it was named Colin, the 3rd named storm of the season. A few hours later on July 4, the storm began to change direction, as it began turning northwards. Late on the same day, Colin reached its peak intensity, with winds of 45 mph (72 km/h) and a central pressure of 1,007 mb (29.7 inHg). At roughly the same time, the storm made landfall on the island of Barbados as it moved north. On July 5, Colin encountered less favorable conditions and weakened into a tropical depression as it paralleled the Lesser Antilles, before moving out to the sea. On July 6, the storm degenerated into a remnant low, as it moved away from the Leeward Islands.

Colin caused widespread but minor damage in most of the Windward and a parts of the Leeward Islands. On Barbados, the storm's winds damaged roofs, ripped branches off trees, and caused car accidents. In addition, minor flooding took place. 3 people died on the island, after their car slid off a road into the ocean. In the rest of the Windward Islands, Colin caused minor roof damage as it meandered nearby. Overall, Colin was responsible for 3 deaths and roughly $5 million in damage.

Tropical Depression Four

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Pre-Tropical Depression Eight 2009-09-25 1250Z.jpg TD Four 2022 Track.png
DurationJuly 6 – July 8
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1012 mbar (hPa)

On July 2, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave that entered the Caribbean Sea the day prior. The wave did not attain tropical characteristics while located in the Caribbean Sea, due to increased wind shear. The wave travelled generally westwards, and crossed the Yucatán Peninsula on July 5. At the same time, it began attaining tropical characteristics. After entering the Bay of Campeche on July 6, the NHC classified it as a tropical depression.

The depression slowed down slightly, and on the same day it reached peak intensity of 35 mph. After peaking, the depression began slowly weakening as it curved and accelerated southwards. On July 8, the depression made landfall on Mexico with winds of 25 mph, and dissipated the same day.

Hurricane Danielle

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Maria at peak intensity.jpg C1 Danielle 2022 Track.png
DurationJuly 14 – July 23
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  978 mbar (hPa)

An early-season tropical wave emerged off the coast of Africa on July 9. Despite being well organized, the wave struggled to develop due to increased wind shear in the open Atlantic. As the sheared wave began approaching the Caribbean Sea on July 13, it entered an area of relatively low wind shear. A circulation started developing on the same day, and late on the same day, the wave passed over the island of St. Lucia. 6 hours later, the NHC upgraded the wave to a tropical depression, based on continuously improving satellite appearance and the formation of a well-defined circulation.

The newly formed depression was slow to strengthen, due to an unusual increase of wind shear. The depression moved generally west, tracking across the Caribbean Sea at a steady pace. On July 16, the depression's banding features increased and the circulation became more well defined; according to this, the depression was upgraded to a tropical storm mid-day on July 16, and received the name Danielle.

The storm continued strengthening during the next day, while it slowly turned north-westwards under the influence of a nearby ridge. This trend of movement continued through September 18. The following day, Danielle developed an eye feature, and the Dvorak satellite classifications indicated that Danielle became a hurricane; based on this, it was upgraded to a hurricane, with winds of 75 mph. 7 hours later, Danielle made landfall over Quintana Roo near Vigia Chico, with winds of 75 mph and a central pressure of 988 mb.

Danielle crossed over the Yucatán Peninsula in approximately 8 hours, and emerged over the Gulf of Mexico as a tropical storm early on July 20. Immediately after reemerging over water, Danielle began strengthening again under favorable conditions, with low wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures, the only hindrance being slightly drier air. At the same time, the storm's forward speed slowed down considerably, and Danielle began turning eastwards under the influence of another ridge located over north of the storm. The storm began moving north-eastwards, while still strengthening. A clouded eye developed on the following day, and Danielle was upgraded to a hurricane once again. Danielle's eye became more defined overnight, and early on July 22, Danielle reached its peak intensity, with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) and a central pressure of 978 mb. At peak, Danielle had a small, well defined eye roughly 7 miles across.

Danielle began weakening during the day, due to increased land interaction. The storm turned eastwards, moving towards Florida at a rapid pace. Late on July 22, Danielle made landfall near Cape Coral, Florida, with sustained winds of 75 mph and a central pressure of 982 mb. At the same time, the storm turned north-eastwards and rapidly accelerated in that direction while simultaneously weakening over land. Danielle emerged over water again mid-day on July 23, as a weak tropical depression. At the same time, the storm began undergoing extratropical transition. Late on the same day, Danielle transitioned into an extratropical cyclone while paralleling the East Coast of the United States. Danielle's remnants raced north-eastwards and were absorbed into a larger extratropical cyclone near Newfoundland on July 27.

Along its path through the Caribbean and Florida, Danielle caused widespread but minor damage. In Quintana Roo, Danielle's strong winds destroyed roughly 187 homes (mostly located in shanty towns) and further damaged 5,920 homes. Coastal flooding inundated many buildings, and rainfall only added to the flooding. In Florida, damage was generally minimal, although it covered a large area. In total, Danielle caused $1.14 billion in damage and 19 deaths.

Tropical Storm Earl

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Chris Jun 20 2012 1430Z.jpg TS Earl 2022 Track.png
DurationJuly 19 – July 26
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

The origins of Earl can be traced back to a disorganized tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Africa on July 16, as a part of an unusual train of early-season tropical waves. Initially, the wave did not develop, as it passed through the Cape Verde Islands, bringing semi-heavy rainfall to the island chain. However, environmental conditions improved as the wave moved past of the Cape Verde, and it soon began developing a closed circulation as the general organization of it improved. On early July 19, the NHC classified it as a tropical depression, the sixth one of the season.

The depression organized quickly, and just a day later on July 20, it was upgraded to a tropical storm and received the name Earl, in accordance to the naming list for the 2022 season. Under the influence of a relatively strong ridge to its north, the storm took on a curved path, tracking westwards and gradually turning north. The storm gradually strengthened during that same period, eventually reaching its peak intensity with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) in the open Atlantic Ocean. Unusually, Earl reached its lowest central pressure of 997 mbar a day earlier, when the storm had winds of only 45 mph.

After peaking in wind speed, Earl began a trend of weakening as it traversed cooler waters of the northern Atlantic. On July 25, Earl succumbed to cold waters and weakened below tropical storm intensity. The storm maintained tropical depression intensity for roughly a day, before it transformed into an extratropical cyclone. The extratropical remnant of Earl increased in size significantly, and moved over the Cape Breton Island of Nova Scotia on July 28. The extratropical cyclone slowed down its movement speed, and got absorbed into a larger cyclone the same day.

Earl had no effects on land as a tropical cyclone. As a tropical wave, the system dropped light to moderate rainfall over most of the Cape Verde Islands. However, Earl's most significant effects were after it's extratropical transition. After moving over Nova Scotia, Earl's extratropical remnant caused strong winds across much of the province. The cyclone, combined with a nearby cyclone that later merged with ex-Earl, dropped copious amounts of snow all over the Cape Breton Island and other areas of Nova Scotia. Large amounts of snow blocked roads, damaged buildings and disrupted infrastructure. Over all, the effects of Earl and its remnants were estimated at $100 million US dollars, and there were no reported deaths.

Hurricane Fiona

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Fiona 2022 Prism55.png C4 Fiona 2022 Track.png
DurationJuly 19 – July 27
Peak intensity150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  931 mbar (hPa)

Fiona's origins can be traced back to a tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Atlantic on July 2. The wave generally moved slowly westwards, its development hindered by moderate to high shear that dominated the Atlantic. The wave remained disorganized up until it entered the Caribbean Sea on July 16.

On July 17, the wave began acquiring a closed circulation, as the wave began rapidly organizing under an environment of decreased wind shear, waters well above the July average and abundant moisture. The NHC marked the wave for possible development, making it a potential tropical cyclone. The wave continued organizing at a rapid pace, and early on July 19 it was classified as a tropical depression, with winds of 35 mph and a central pressure of 999 mb. The depression rapidly deepened, becoming a tropical storm only 6 hours later. It was assigned the name Fiona on the same day.

Fiona moved westwards at a slow pace, along with strengthening slowly. This slow strengthening carried on for the next day and a half. However, late on July 20, shear decreased rapidly, and under conditions favorable for intensification, the storm underwent explosive deepening as it tracked slowly towards the Dominican Republic. The storm quickly developed a small eye, as it strengthened from a tropical storm to a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph in just 6 hours. In the following 6 hours, the storm strengthened into a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 115 mph, becoming the first major hurricane of the season, and one of the few July major hurricanes on record. At the same time, its eye became more well-defined, and cloud tops cooled.

The storm's movement speed slowed down considerably, as Fiona made a close approach to Hispaniola on July 21. At the same time, the storm's winds slowly increased, and its central pressure dropped to an initial low of 943 mb. Early on July 22, Fiona's central pressure began rising in response to prolonged periods of land interaction with the mountainous terrain of Hispaniola, although its winds kept rising at a steady pace. On that day, Fiona made landfall on the border of the Pedernales and Barahon provinces of Dominican Republic, with winds of 120 mph and a central pressure of 948 mb. The storm crossed over land within 6 hours, largely unaffected by the landfall. Late on that day, its pressure began dropping once again, as the storm's forwards speed increased.

Fiona paralleled Haiti's Tiburon Peninsula on late July 22 and early July 23, before it began moving west-southwestwards as the ridge north of it strengthened slightly. On July 23, Fiona skirted the southern coast of Jamaica as a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 125 mph. The storm underwent rapid strengthening once again on early July 24, reaching Category 4 status there as it moved westwards away from Jamaica. Fiona's forward speed slowed down very slightly and the storm continued intensifying at a rapid pace. Late on July 24, the storm reached peak wind speeds, with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) while located over the open waters of the Caribbean Sea. 6 hours later, Fiona's pressure bottomed out at 931 mb, becoming one of the most intense July tropical cyclones on record. At its peak, Fiona had a clear, 8 mile wide eye.

Mid-day on July 25, Fiona developed concentric eyewalls, indicating that an eyewall replacement cycle was about to take place. Due to the inner eyewall being absorbed by the outer one, the storm's winds rapidly dropped, as its eye became ill-defined and clouded. This eventually took its toll on the storm's intensity, and early on July 26, Fiona dropped to a Category 3 hurricane. Despite shear being only marginally higher and waters with above-average temperatures, Fiona failed to strengthen any further, and another eyewall replacement cycle took place on that day, causing the storm's pressure to rise and its winds to decrease to 115 mph. The storm maintained this intensity up until its landfall on July 27.

Early on July 27, Fiona began developing concentric eyewalls once again, indicating that an eyewall replacement cycle was about to take place again. A few hours later, Fiona made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, with winds of 115 mph and a central pressure of 962 mb. After moving over land, with its core disrupted and concentric eyewalls, Fiona rapidly weakened, its winds decreasing from major hurricane intensity to tropical storm intensity within just 6 hours. Fiona degenerated into a remnant low late on that day, as its remnants emerged into the Bay of Campeche. Fiona lost its circulation there, and the remnant moisture moved over the United States and travelled northwards. The remnants were absorbed into a larger extratropical cyclone over Canada a few days later.

On Hispaniola and Jamaica, Fiona caused catastrophic damage. In the Dominican Republic, torrential rainfall brought by the storm caused extreme mudslides and flooding that killed hundreds of people. Rivers topped their banks and flooded cities, villages and shanty towns, while mudslides buried many more. A similar situation unfolded on Haiti, where a particularly severe mudslide buried nearly 2,000 people under several feet of mud and debris. Around 600 were saved, but the rest were assumed to have perished. On Jamaica, extreme winds and rainfall toppled trees, blown houses off their foundations and killed hundreds more. Rivers turned into raging torrents that flooded neighborhoods, destroyed bridges and submerged large areas under feet of muddy water. On the Yucatán Peninsula, a similar situation unfolded, although good forecasting minimized the death count to roughly 30 deaths. Despite this, powerful winds leveled entire villages, snapped trees and power poles, and mudslides submerged streets and houses. Overall, Fiona resulted in roughly $14 billion in damage, and approximately 5,492 deaths, with hundreds more still missing. The storm was one of the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes on record. After the season, the name Fiona was retired due to its extreme damage and death count.

Hurricane Gaston

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Dujuan 2015-09-26 0420Z.jpg C3 Gaston 2022 Track.png
DurationJuly 26 – July 31
Peak intensity115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min)  953 mbar (hPa)

The origins of Gaston were non-tropical; the storm originated from a non-tropical area of low pressure that developed off the East Coast of United States on July 21. The area slowly drifted around the area, dropping rainfall over the states of Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina. As it tracked over favorable conditions south-west of Bermuda on July 25, the area began to acquire tropical characteristics; according to this, the NHC marked the low for possible development.

Over the next few hours, the low rapidly developed a closed circulation. Convection blossomed near the center and to its north; storm systems near the center of the low organized. Early on July 26, a recon flight was sent out to investigate the system, and reported winds of 35 mph near the center and to its north; based on this, the NHC classified the system as a tropical depression at 12:00 on July 26. Due to a continuously improving satellite appearance over the course of the day, the NHC upgraded the depression to a tropical storm late on the same day. It received the name Gaston, according to the naming convention in the Atlantic.

Gaston continued slowly strengthening throughout July 27 as it moved north-east towards Bermuda. Late on July 28, Gaston strengthened into the 3rd hurricane of the season as the eastern side of its eyewall skirted Bermuda while still strengthening. Early on July 29, Gaston commenced rapid intensification, as its winds strengthened to 105 mph (169 km/h) and it began forming a large eye in the center. Mid-day on July 29, Gaston peaked as a Category 3 hurricane, with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) and an unusually low pressure of 953 mb (28.1 inHg). At its peak, Gaston possessed a large, ragged eye.

After peaking, Gaston began quickly weakening as dry air entered the storm's circulation and the storm moved over cooler waters. The southern side of its eyewall nearly disappeared, and the eye rapidly became cloud-filled and ill-defined. During much of July 30, Gaston continued weakening at a rapid pace as the storm's circulation collapsed and its wind field expanded. Early on July 31, Gaston degenerated into a tropical depression, and subsequently to a remnant low. The storm's remnants moved north and then east, until dissipating south of Iceland on August 4.

Hurricane Hermine

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Ophelia 14 sept 2005 1605Z.jpg C1 Hermine 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 3 – August 23
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  989 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Ian

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Ian 2022 Prism55.png C5 Ian 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 3 – August 13
Peak intensity165 mph (270 km/h) (1-min)  932 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Julia

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Julia 2022 Prism55.png C2 Julia 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 3 – August 8
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  978 mbar (hPa)


Tropical Depression Twelve

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Depression Nine (2001).JPG TD Twelve 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 3 – August 3
Peak intensity30 mph (45 km/h) (1-min)  1001 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Karl

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Karl 2022 Prism55.png C3 Karl 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 4 – August 16
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min)  962 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Lisa

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Lisa 2022 Prism55.png C2 Lisa 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 5 – August 13
Peak intensity110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min)  986 mbar (hPa)


Tropical Depression Fifteen

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Depression Lisa 2010-09-23 1230Z.jpg TD Fifteen 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 5 – August 7
Peak intensity25 mph (35 km/h) (1-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Martin

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Martin 2022 Prism55.png C4 Martin 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 7 – September 15
Peak intensity155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  920 mbar (hPa)

In late July, a tropical wave emerged off the coast of Africa. This wave left two areas of low pressure behind in the Central Atlantic, which later developed into hurricanes Karl and Lisa, while the main part of the wave continued moving across the Atlantic at a brisk pace.

On August 5, the NHC noted that the wave began acquiring a closed circulation, as convection developed near the center, and that an area of low pressure has formed. NHC's forecasters also noted that the wave's development would initially be inhibited due to the rapidly intensifying Hurricane Ian to its north, along with its southerly latitude.

Throughout much of August 6, the low pressure area continued deepening, while the closed circulation tightened. Early on August 7, the low-pressure area developed into a small tropical depression according to the NHC.

Initially, the depression was forecast to quickly intensity into a tropical storm. This prediction was found to be true, as the depression attained sustained 1-minute wind speeds of 50 mph. As such, it was assigned the name Martin, in accordance to the Atlantic naming conventions. Despite the NHC forecasting the small Martin to remain a tropical storm for several days, just 6 hours later Martin bore winds of 80 mph, making it a Category 1 hurricane. This was attributed to the storm's very small size - at the time being only 105 miles across.

Martin's satellite appearance continued to drastically improve over the night from August 7 to August 8, with a 10 mile wide eye forming. Martin's overall size didn't increase much, but a partial ring of central dense overcast formed. In the morning of August 8, Martin was upgraded to a Category 3 major hurricane, only a day after first being classified as a tropical depression - a near-record pace. Martin's overall appearance continued to drastically improve, and the eye became much more well defined and smaller. A reconnaissance plane encountered violent winds, along with hail - a rare occurrence in a tropical cyclone. It also found surface winds of 140 mph. Based on this, Martin was upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane mid-day on August 8 - on its 6th total advisory.

After reaching its initial peak intensity, Martin's appearance remained impressive. However, the next recon plane measured winds of 130 mph, indicating a weakening trend. Martin's movement speed slowed down as the storm began turning north. Around this time a second, outer eyewall began developing, indicating that an eyewall replacement cycle was about to take place. During this process, Martin's overall size increased. The cycle, combined with the small storm interacting with several islands, accelerated the weakening process. Martin weakened to a Category 3 storm with winds of 125 mph. The storm began moving north on August 9, away from Trinidad and Tobago and towards the central Windward Islands. During this whole time the storm's size increased, and a second eyewall replacement cycle weakened to storm further, with eye becoming larger and more ragged. Late on August 9 Martin weakened to Category 2 hurricane, located between Barbados and Saint Vincent.

Martin's forward speed slightly increased on August 10, and the storm briefly made landfall over the northeastern coast of Saint Lucia early in the morning, with wind speeds of 110 mph. The hurricane passed through the Saint Lucia Channel and just southwest of Martinique, bringing powerful winds and rain to both islands. Martin entered the Caribbean Sea, and with more favorable conditions began to intensify again. A mid-day recon flight found winds of 120 mph, and Martin was subsequently upgraded to a Category 3 major hurricane again.

Martin turned in a west-northwest direction, passing south of the Leeward Islands while intensifying and growing in size. It passed south of Saint Croix with winds of 125 mph on August 11, before skirting south of Puerto Rico. While land interaction inhibited rapid development, but warm waters of the Mona Passage allowed Martin to continue gaining strength. The storm reached Category 4 intensity for the second time on August 12, shortly before making landfall over La Altagracia Province, Dominican Republic, with winds of 130 mph.

Tropical Storm Nicole

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
1024px-Cindy 2017-06-21 1645Z.jpg TS Nicole 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 7 – August 14
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  992 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Owen

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Owen 2022 Prism55.png C5 Owen 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 15 – August 26
Peak intensity175 mph (280 km/h) (1-min)  899 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Paula

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Helene 18 sept 2006.jpg C4 Paula 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 15 – August 20
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  962 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Richard

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
HURLEEnew.png C3 Richard 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 23 – September 4
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min)  965 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Shary

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Shary 2022 Prism55.png C5 Shary 2022 Track.png
DurationAugust 30 – September 12
Peak intensity185 mph (295 km/h) (1-min)  885 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave moved over the Atlantic from Africa in mid-August. The wave proceeded across the Atlantic with little development, suppressed by shear from other storms across the Atlantic. Late on August 28, shear acting upon the wave decreased, and the wave's circulation began to improve, and convection developed rapidly. The storm system continued to organize, and on August 30, based on satellite estimates and a constantly improving appearance, the NHC classified the system as a tropical storm with wind speeds of 60 mph (97 km/h), and it received the name Shary.

Shortly after formation, Shary's appearance became more disheveled as wind shear adversely affected the system, and the storm weakened slightly to 50 mph (80 km/h). This weakening was short lived, however; on September 31, Shary began strengthening again as it entered favorable conditions again. A primitive eye-like feature was observed on satellite; in addition, a Hurricane Hunters aircraft found hurricane-force winds in the northeastern quadrant of the storm. Accordingly, the NHC assessed that Shary reached hurricane intensity between 7:00 and 8:00 UTC, and hurricane warnings were issued for several islands of the Windward Islands. Continuing on a course due west, Shary strengthened to reach an intensity of 85 mph (137 km/h), with a central pressure of 982 mb (29.0 inHg). Slight weakening took place before Shary made landfall on Dominica at 10:00 UTC on September 2, with the same windspeed but a slightly higher pressure of 984 mb (29.1 inHg).

The landfall, along with a small amount of dry air entering the system, caused Shary to briefly weaken. However, located under otherwise favorable conditions, Shary began a period of strengthening while steadily moving west over the Caribbean Sea. Shary reached Category 2 intensity on September 3, and subsequently became a major hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale at 12:00 UTC on September 4. The speed of Shary's intensification increased on that day as it approached Jamaica, with Shary becoming a Category 4 just 4 hours later. Intensification slowed down slightly afterwards, before quickly ramping up again between September 4 and 5 as Shary entered a period of rapid intensification. A Hurricane Hunters aircraft measured peak surface winds of 175 mph (282 km/h) at 8:32 UTC on September 5. Based on this measurement, as well as the formation of a well-defined eye surrounded by cold cloud tops, Shary was upgraded to a Category 5 hurricane, the third of the season, with winds of 175 mph (282 km/h) and a central pressure of 901 mb (26.6 inHg). Shary's rapid intensification culminated 6 hours later, when a dropsonde measured a central pressure of 885 mb (26.1 inHg) in the storm; the lowest pressure recorded in connection with the storm. Based on recon aircraft measurements, Shary's wind speed was estimated at 185 mph (298 km/h) At the time, Shary was located approximately 57 mi (92 km) south of Kingston, Jamaica.

Shortly after its peak, Shary made its closest approach to Jamaica, passing 22 mi (35 km) south of Portland Point. Recon aircraft measured that Shary's pressure had risen slightly, to 889 mb (26.3 inHg) as it moved away from Jamaica. However, Shary maintained its powerful winds until mid-day on September 6, when an eyewall replacement cycle began to develop. Shary weakened below Category 5 intensity early on September 7, as it approached the Yucatan Peninsula, but not after spending nearly two full days at Category 5 intensity. Shary's winds bottomed out at 150 mph (240 km/h), before it made landfall just north of Tulum, Quintana Roo in the evening of September 7.

Shary weakened considerably as it traversed the Yucatan Peninsula, then slowed down and briefly moved on a nearly due east course over the Gulf of Mexico. At this point, Shary was a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. However, the storm began strengthening shortly afterward, fueled by warm water and with very favorable conditions. Intensification was primarily slowed down by Shary's large size at the time, as the storm expanded after its eyewall replacement cycle. Shary assumed a northwest course, directing it towards the Texas coast as it steadily strengthened. Shary's strengthening culminated with the storm reaching Category 5 intensity for a second time near the Texas coast, with a wind speed of 165 mph (266 km/h) and a low central pressure of 903 mb (26.7 inHg). Shortly after reaching peak intensity, Shary made landfall over Matagorda Island at 0:20 UTC on September 11, before moving inland near Austwell, Texas. Shary weakened quickly while over land, as it turned northeast and accelerated over land, before transforming into a remnant low between Oklahoma and Missouri. Shary's remnants continued dropping landfall as they moved north, eventually dissipating over Lake Michigan.

Shary caused widespread devastation during its 13-day journey, during which it traversed the entire Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. In Dominica, damage by Shary was generally limited to roof and tree damage, although 5 people were killed. Shary passed very close to Jamaica, lashing the island with high winds and torrential rainfall. Nearly 500 people perished on the island, and damage was estimated at $3 billion dollars. Shary's worst impact was on the Yucatan Peninsula. Nearly 8,000 people were killed in Mexico, as a result of very high winds and extreme rainfall. Over 6,500 of those deaths were in Quintana Roo. Despite making landfall far away from the nation, in Belize Shary dropped heavy rainfall, storm surge and landslides killed over 1,000 people. In the United States, Shary's extreme winds and storm surge caused major damage to the Corpus Christi metropolitan area, while rainfall and wind-induced damage spread across large portions of southern Texas. Elsewhere, Shary spawned a tornado outbreak as a tropical depression that killed three people. Altogether, Shary killed 9,764 people across its path, and caused $118 billion dollars in damage.

Tropical Depression Twenty-two

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
10L Aug 25 2011 1535Z.jpg TD Twenty-two 2022 Track.png
DurationSeptember 2 – September 2
Peak intensity30 mph (50 km/h) (1-min)  1001 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Tobias

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Tobias 2022 Prism55.png C5 Tobias 2022 Track.png
DurationSeptember 4 – September 17
Peak intensity210 mph (340 km/h) (1-min)  874 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave emerged off the coast of Africa on September 2. Initially, the wave remained disorganized as it moved westwards at a relatively rapid pace. On September 3, it was observed that the wave began splitting in two. After the split occurred, the main part of the wave continued tracking westwards at a stable speed. The detached area of low pressure moved to the northwest, and later developed into Hurricane Walter.

On September 3, the wave began showing signs of intensification, as a closed circulation began developing. This trend of strengthening continued throughout the following day, and the wave organized rapidly as a circulation developed. Early on September 4, the NHC upgraded the wave to a tropical depression, based on continuously improving satellite appearance.

The newly formed depression continued strengthening quickly throughout the day, and in just 12 hours, it was upgraded to a tropical storm. The storm received the name Tobias on September 5, becoming the 19th named storm of the season. Tobias continued organizing and strengthening at a quick pace, and mid-day on September 6 it was upgraded to a hurricane with sustained winds of 75 mph (121 km/h) and a central pressure of 984 mb (29.1 inHg). The intensification was not long lived, and in just 12 hours Tobias weakened back to a tropical storm due to increased shear from multiple nearby storms, along with cooler waters caused by the several storms that moved over the area earlier in the season.

Over the next couple of days, Tobias kept up its constant speed while moving across the Atlantic as a tropical storm. On September 8, it reached hurricane status for 6 hours, but weakened again. Tobias generally sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) during this period.

Mid-day on September 9, Tobias began turning north-westwards, in response to the ridge to its north weakening. At the same time, the NHC anticipated that Tobias would move over an environment of favorable conditions, including low wind shear, warm waters and ample moisture. The NHC forecasted a strong hurricane strike on Florida, noting that Tobias would hit the state just days after Hurricane Virginie devastated several areas as a Category 4 hurricane. The NHC also noted that the storm should not be taken lightly, but that the overall devastation would be "less severe than the devastation caused by Virginie".

On September 11, Tobias began turning west again, and entered the area north of the Bahamas. Conditions were near perfect for explosive intensification, with water temperatures of up to 41 °C (106 °F), virtually no wind shear, and ample moisture provided by the remnants of Tropical Depression Twenty-two, Tobias underwent a period of explosive intensification. In just a 6-hour period, the storm's winds increased from 70 mph (110 km/h) to 165 mph (266 km/h), an increase of 95 mph (153 km/h). Along with that, its pressure dropped from 979 mb (28.9 inHg) to 912 mb (26.9 inHg), a 67 mb drop in just 6 hours. A recon flight, which was sent to the storm after its period of explosive deepening had begun, reported that they measured winds of 100 mph while in the eyewall. After moving through the eye and entering the eyewall on the other side 45 minutes after first entering the eye, they measured 120 mph winds. After this extreme period of intensification, Tobias continued explosively strengthening, albeit at a slower rate. In just 6 more hours, the storm bore record-breaking winds of 195 mph (314 km/h) and had a central pressure of 893 mb (26.4 inHg), only slightly less intense than Hurricane Shary a few days prior. Early on September 12, Tobias reached its record peak intensity, with sustained 1-minute winds of 215 mph (346 km/h) and a central pressure of 874 mb (25.8 inHg), becoming the most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Atlantic basin and the second most intense in the Western Hemisphere, trailing only Hurricane Patricia of 2015.

After this period of strengthening, Tobias began developing a secondary, outer eyewall, indicating that an eyewall replacement cyclone was about to take place. Late on September 12, Tobias' inner eyewall began to degrade, and at the same time, the storm made its initial landfall near Cape Canaveral, Florida with sustained winds of 205 mph (330 km/h) and a central pressure of 877 mb (25.9 inHg); both values constituted a worldwide record. The storm made two more landfalls in quick succession: at 0:10 a.m. over southern Merritt Island, and at roughly 0:25 a.m. between Cocoa and Port St. John. Both of the final landfalls were with 1-minute sustained winds of 200 mph (320 km/h). All three landfalls were stronger than any previous worldwide landfalls. While moving over Florida, Tobias completed its eyewall replacement cycle, which, alongside land interaction, weakened the storm

Over land, Tobias weakened at a rapid pace; after emerging over water again mid-day on September 13, the storm bore winds of 155 mph (249 km/h) and a central pressure of 909 mb (26.8 inHg). Despite being close to land, the storm began strengthening again. Mid-day on September 14, a recon flight found sustained winds of 165 mph (266 km/h); based on this, Tobias was upgraded to a Category 5 hurricane again, while located over the Gulf of Mexico. The storm continued quickly strengthening to reach a secondary peak intensity, with winds of 185 mph (298 km/h) and a central pressure of 891 mb (26.3 inHg). This intensification was not long lived; just an hour later, the storm began undergoing a second eyewall replacement cycle as it approached land. Tobias made landfall in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana on that day, with sustained 1-minute winds of 175 mph (282 km/h) and a pressure of 901 mb (26.6 inHg), then made several successive landfalls on islands of southern Louisiana.

After moving over Louisiana, the storm quickly weakened below Category 5 intensity. Tobias accelerated slightly as it briefly moved over water again, with its eyewall skirting Texas. the storm made a landfall in the McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge late on September 15, with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h). As the ridge north of it weakened, Tobias turned northwards while rapidly weakening. The storm's eyewall skirted Houston, and the weakening cyclone accelerated northeastwards. Late on September 17, Tobias degenerated into a remnant low, and the remnants fell apart and dissipated over Texas on the same day.

Tobias caused catastrophic and widespread damage across Florida and the Gulf Coast. On the Florida Peninsula, Tobias killed over 45,000 people, making it the deadliest tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin. Near the landfall point, Tobias leveled practically every structure, stripped trees of their bark, and scoured the ground severely. Due to the failure of the NHC to properly forecast the storm's intensity, thousands of people died, as the storm's extreme winds (equivalent to those of an F5 tornado) tossed cars, tore houses out of their foundations, snapped power poles and even destroyed buildings used as shelters. Severe damage occurred even many miles away from the eyewall. In Louisiana, the powerful winds and a large storm surge flooded low-lying areas, including sections of New Orleans. The majority of buildings on the coastline were damaged or completely destroyed, and hundreds died as a result. Similar damage occurred in Texas, especially in Houston. Overall, Tobias caused the deaths of 48,191 people and $276 billion in damage, making it the deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record. It was also the costliest Atlantic hurricane, until Hurricane Eta surpassed in a few weeks later. The name Tobias was retired after the season.

Hurricane Virginie

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Virginie 2022 Prism55.png C4 Virginie 2022 Track.png
DurationSeptember 4 – September 11
Peak intensity145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min)  939 mbar (hPa)

A small area of low pressure developed in the outer rainbands of Hurricane Shary late on September 2. The small area of low pressure slowly moved northwards over the next 24 hours, and early on September 4 its satellite appearance began improving, despite shear generated by the more powerful Shary which was nearby at the time. Based on the improving satellite appearance, the low was upgraded to a tropical depression by the NHC on 0:00 UTC.

The depression was steered northwestward by Shary, as it strengthened quickly. Late on the same day, the depression was upgraded to a tropical storm and received the name Virginie. The storm continued moving north, and rapidly strengthened while approaching Cuba. A few hours prior to its landfall on the island, Virginie reached minimal hurricane status as measured by a recon aircraft, with winds of 75 mph (121 km/h) and a central pressure of 984 mb (29.1 inHg). Soon later, Virginie made landfall on the Zapata Peninsula of Cuba at hurricane intensity, and then a second landfall a few hours later as a high-end tropical storm.

On September 6, Virginie emerged over the Straits of Florida as a strong tropical storm, and immediately began rapidly strengthening as it approached the Florida Keys, due to very warm waters in the area. Virginie reached hurricane status once again prior to its landfall on Lower Sugarloaf Key. Unscathed by the landfall, Virginie soon underwent explosive deepening, becoming a Category 4 hurricane late on September 6. Virginie reached peak intensity early on September 7, with winds of 145 mph (233 km/h) and a central pressure of 939 mb (27.7 inHg) while making landfall on Florida. Virginie's eye moved over land near Punta Gorda and Port Charlotte early on September 7, the same location where Hurricane Charley made landfall in 2004.

Virginie was slow to weaken over land. When the storm emerged over water again on September 8, Virginie was a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 105 mph (169 km/h). The storm was steered along the East Coast due to an area of high pressure located inland. As it paralleled the coast of Georgia and South Carolina, Virginie steadily weakened due to continuous land interaction. The storm weakened to a Category 1 hurricane, and on September 9 Virginie made landfall near Cedar Point, North Carolina as a minimal hurricane. The storm moved inland, and continued weakening as it moved into Maryland and Virginia, before degenerating into a remnant low over the state of New York.

Virginie's effects were tremendous in Florida and Cuba. Numerous communities were flooded, and several trailer parks were completely destroyed. At least 16, mostly children, people were killed when a church roof collapsed during the storm. In Cuba, the storm's impacts were less severe than in Florida, but still notable. All in all, Virginie was responsible for 79 deaths and at least $65.2 billion dollars of damage, making it one of the costliest tropical cyclones on record.

Hurricane Walter

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Walter 2022 Prism55.png C3 Walter 2022 Track.png
DurationSeptember 7 – September 23
Peak intensity125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min)  945 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Alpha

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Alpha 2022 Prism55.png C2 Alpha 2022 Track.png
DurationSeptember 8 – September 13
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  986 mbar (hPa)

A small area of low pressure developed about 54 mi (87 km) southwest of La Palma, Canary Islands late on September 7. Despite relatively high wind shear, the area of low pressure rapidly acquired a tight circulation and convection, although it was slightly sheared from the center. The NHC began monitoring the area late on September 7, but as it continued to rapidly organize, the NHC released a special advisory at 23:00 UTC, labelling the area of low pressure as Tropical Depression 26-L with winds of 35 mph (56 km/h).

On September 8, the depression moved northwest, passing just northwest of La Palma. Despite initially organizing well, higher shear over the Canary Islands caused the convection to become displaced from the central circulation, and the depression weakened slightly. It turned in a more northernly direction, before moving west again on September 9, passing south of Madeira. Shear abated at this point, and the depression began acquiring organization again, located over warm waters. Late on September 10, scatterometer data suggested the depression had sustained tropical-storm-force winds and was quickly organizing. Based on this, combined with satellite estimates, the NHC upgraded the depression to a tropical storm, and it received the name Tropical Storm Alpha, becoming the first named storm to use the Greek alphabet since 2005.

Alpha moved on a curved pattern, as a cold front propelled it towards Morocco while steadily intensifying. Early on September 12, Alpha made landfall near Asilah, Morocco, with winds of 50 mph (80 km/h) and a central pressure of 994 mb (29.4 inHg). A few hours later, Alpha entered the Mediterranean Sea and its forwards speed slowed down considerably as the cold front to its north moved away, and the storm simultaneously began moving more north. At the same time, Alpha underwent an unexpected, quick period of rapid intensification, forming a ragged but visible eye and deepening. Based on scatterometer and satellite estimates, Alpha peaked with a windspeed of 105 mph (169 km/h), but a comparatively high pressure of 986 mb (29.1 inHg). This peak was short-lived, and Alpha began to rapidly weaken in response to increased land interaction as its eye neared land. Alpha made landfall near Motril, Spain early on September 13 with winds of 85 mph (137 km/h) and a high central pressure of 998 mb (29.5 inHg). Alpha rapidly degenerated after landfall, and the NHC issued its final advisory late on September 13 as Alpha moved northeast. The remnants of Alpha moved back over the Mediterranean Sea, before turning north and moving over land in France, where they were absorbed into a larger weather system.

Hurricane Beta

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Beta 2022 Prism55.png C4 Beta 2022 Track.png
DurationSeptember 14 – September 22
Peak intensity150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  942 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Gamma

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg C1 Gamma 2022 Track.png
DurationSeptember 16 – October 4
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  982 mbar (hPa)


Tropical Storm Delta

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg TS Delta 2022 Track.png
DurationOctober 8 – October 13
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  988 mbar (hPa)


Tropical Storm Epsilon

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg TS Epsilon 2022 Track.png
DurationOctober 9 – October 16
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  991 mbar (hPa)


Tropical Storm Zeta

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg TS Zeta 2022 Track.png
DurationOctober 19 – October 30
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  986 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Eta

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Eta 2022 Prism55.png C4 Eta 2022 Track.png
DurationOctober 19 – November 2
Peak intensity155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  928 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Theta

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg C1 Theta 2022 Track.png
DurationOctober 21 – November 6
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  959 mbar (hPa)


Tropical Storm Iota

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg TS Iota 2022 Track.png
DurationNovember 3 – November 15
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  989 mbar (hPa)


Tropical Storm Kappa

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg TS Kappa 2022 Track.png
DurationNovember 10 – November 17
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  992 mbar (hPa)


Hurricane Lambda

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Lambda 2022 Prism55.png C5 Lambda 2022 Track.png
DurationNovember 23 – December 3
Peak intensity175 mph (280 km/h) (1-min)  921 mbar (hPa)

The origins of Lambda can be traced back to a weak, late season tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Africa on November 12. It travelled across the Atlantic and entered the Caribbean on November 20 while continuing to move west. The National Hurricane Center began monitoring the wave for potential development on November 21, when it was forecast to interact with a low-pressure area over the southwestern Caribbean, while entering an area of generally favorable conditions, including abnormally warm waters. During November 22, convection blossomed over the system, with localized heavy thunderstorms spreading over far northern Colombia as the wave paralleled the coastline in the southern Caribbean. Shortly afterwards, a Hurricane Hunters flight uncovered a circulation and winds of 35 mph (56 km/h) near the center. Subsequently at 0:00 UTC on November 23, NHC initiated advisories on Tropical Depression 36-L, located roughly 125 mi (201 km) north of Santa Marta, Colombia.

The newly formed depression initially remained weak while slowly moving southwestward, due to the presence of shear. It reached its southernmost point late on November 24, before slowly moving northwestwards as it was steered by a ridge to its north. Slowly entering more favorable conditions, the depression acquired deeper convection, and based of scatterometer data and satellite estimates it was upgraded to a tropical storm with winds of 40 mph (64 km/h) on November 26, receiving the name Lambda.

Progressing generally west, the storm took a more northern turn during the day while steadily intensifying in increasingly favorable conditions. A primitive eye developed on satellite and radar images, and Lambda was upgraded to a hurricane with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) on November 27, the 21st hurricane of the season. The storm turned almost due north, and as shear decreased rapidly, it was located in an area of unusually favorable conditions for the time of the year, with sea surface temperatures up to 32 °C (90 °F). Consequently, Lambda entered a period of rapid intensification, as the eye became more well defined. Early on November 28, Lambda reached Category 3 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale, with winds estimated at 115 mph (185 km/h) and a central pressure of 971 mbar (28.7 inHg). Rapid intensification continued throughout the day, with Lambda developing a well-defined eye. Late on November 28, Lambda reached Category 5 intensity, with winds of 165 mph (266 km/h) measured by a Hurricane Hunters aircraft. Intensification culminated the following day, with Lambda reaching a peak intensity of 175 mph (282 km/h) and a central pressure of 921 mbar (27.2 inHg) - the second most intense Atlantic tropical cyclone in the month of November, surpassed only by the 1932 Cuba hurricane. At its peak, Lambda was a small hurricane, with a well-defined, symmetrical eye and Central dense overcast. The storm maintained its peak intensity for several hours.

Mid-day on November 29, satellite observations and Hurricane Hunter missions confirmed that Lambda had developed concentric eyewalls, signaling the beginning of an eyewall replacement cycle. At the same time, the powerful storm was approaching colder waters, left in the wake of hurricanes Fiona and Shary earlier in the season. Lambda began weakening shortly afterwards, falling from Category 5 status at 18:00 UTC after maintaining the intensity for 24 hours straight. Early on November 30, rapid weakening commenced, as the storm turned more northeastwards towards Cuba while picking up speed, still guided by the ridge to its north. Late that day, Lambda fell below major hurricane status, as its eye became increasingly ragged and cloud-filled. While moving towards Cuba, it made its closest approach to the Cayman Islands, as a Category 2 hurricane, moving southeast of the islands. The weakening trend slowed down as Lambda accelerated towards Cuba, and on December 1, the storm made landfall over the mouth of the Cauto River as a Category 1 hurricane, with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a central pressure of 980 mbar (29 inHg). The storm weakened to a tropical storm over Cuba, and exited into the open Atlantic, where conditions were more hostile, including higher shear. The weakening cyclone passed just east of Ragged Island on December 2, before skirting Long Island, Bahamas and turning more to the east, passing north of Crooked Island. Lambda's appearance became increasingly ragged and disheveled over the day, with shear taking its toll on the storm. The convection was increasingly sheared from the storm's center as it turned northeast again, and on 12:00 UTC on December 3, the NHC downgraded Lambda to a tropical depression. The storm continued to collapse, with its circulation becoming elongated and ill-defined. The NHC assessed that Lambda degenerated into a post-tropical cyclone late on December 3. Lambda's remnants accelerated away from the Bahamas, before being absorbed into a larger weather system close to Bermuda on December 4.

The precursor tropical disturbance caused serious flooding in northern Colombia. Three people were killed by flooding in Maicao, and two people died in a rainfall-caused car accident in Riohacha. Damage in Colombia totaled about $160 million dollars. Lambda impacted the Cayman Islands as a strong but weakening Category 2 hurricane, causing tree and roof damage across Cayman Brac and Little Cayman. Near the landfall point in Cuba, a storm surge inundated large sections of the Cauto River delta, including portions of Río Cauto. Nine people in total were killed on Cuba - five died from storm surge related flooding, one was struck by lightning and killed, two were crushed by falling trees and one died in a car accident. Damage was estimated at over $1.3 billion dollars, mostly agricultural and flooding-related. Damage was generally minor in the Bahamas, although the storm's winds felled trees and damaged power lines and roofs in the affected islands. In total, Lambda caused 14 deaths and $1.49 billion dollars of damage in the affected areas.

Hurricane Mu

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg C1 Mu 2022 Track.png
DurationDecember 21 – January 4, 2023
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  982 mbar (hPa)


Tropical Storm Nu

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg TS Nu 2022 Track.png
DurationDecember 25 – December 28
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  998 mbar (hPa)


Tropical Depression Thirty-nine

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg TD Thirty-nine 2022 Track.png
DurationDecember 26 – December 27
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)


Tropical Depression Forty

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north.svg TD Forty 2022 Track.png
DurationDecember 28 – December 30
Peak intensity30 mph (45 km/h) (1-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

Deaths and damage

Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE)


Number of storms

Rank Hurricane Season Pressure
hPa inHg
1 Tobias 2022 874 25.80
2 Wilma 2005 882 26.05
3 Shary 2022 885 26.13
4 Gilbert 1988 888 26.23
5 "Labor Day" 1935 892 26.34
6 Rita 2005 895 26.43
7 Gary 2042 897 26.43
8 Allen 1980 899 26.55
Owen 2022
9 Camille 1969 900 26.58
10 Katrina 2005 902 26.64
Source: HURDAT

Hurricane Owen was the 5th most intense Atlantic hurricane at the time of its peak, with a minimal central pressure of 899 mbar. However, it was surpassed by the storms Shary and Tobias just a few weeks later in September.

Hurricane Shary was briefly the second most intense Atlantic hurricane on record, with a central pressure of 885 mbar, with only Wilma of 2005 being more intense. At the time, it also bore winds of 185 mph, the second highest sustained 1-minute winds on record in the Atlantic, tying the Labor Day hurricane of 1935, Gilbert of 1988, Wilma of 2005 and Irma of 2017. Only Hurricane Allen of 1980 had a higher wind speed at the time. However, it was pushed down to 3rd and 2nd place later in the season, respectively.

In early September, Hurricane Tobias reached it record peak intensity, with winds of 215 mph and a central pressure of 874 mbar. This ranked it as the most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Atlantic, both in terms of wind speed and central pressure. Tobias was also the second most intense hurricane on record in the Western hemisphere in terms of pressure, trailing only Hurricane Patricia of 2015 and tying its wind speed record.

2022 was only the second season in the Atlantic to feature two storms with a pressure below 900 mbar, and the only one to feature three (Owen, Shary and Tobias). It was the only season to have two storms reach a pressure below 890 mbar (Shary and Tobias).

In July, Hurricane Fiona reached a peak central pressure of 930 mbar, tying Hurricane Dennis of 2005 as the second most intense July hurricane on record, trailing only Emily of 2005, which attained a pressure of 929 mbar.

2022 featured an unusually high amount of strong landfalls. In August, Hurricane Ian made landfall on Guadeloupe as a Category 5 hurricane. Hurricane Shary made landfall on Texas as a Category 5 hurricane, with winds of 165 mph. A few days later, Hurricane Tobias made landfall on Florida with winds of 205 mph and a central pressure of 877 mbar, the strongest landfall worldwide both in terms of wind speed and pressure. In total, the season featured 20 major hurricane landfalls, a record in the Atlantic.

Tobias underwent the fastest deepening on record worldwide. In just 18 hours, from 6:00 on September 12 to 1:00 on September 13, the storm's pressure dropped from 985 mbar to 874 mbar, a drop of 111 mbar in under a day. This broke several records, set both by Wilma of 2005 (98 mbar drop) for the Atlantic, and Typhoon Forrest of 1983 (100 mbar drop) worldwide. In the same period of time, Tobias' winds increased from 70 mph to 215 mph, a wind speed increase of 145 mph, also a worldwide record.

Early formation

Almost every storm in 2022 set a record for early formation. The table shows the dates on which each storm formed, and the old record for earliest-forming storm of that number.

Early formation of storms in 2022
From the NHC "best track" data
Storm # Formation Day Name Previous Record Difference
1 April 22 Alex January 3, 1938 +112 days
2 June 14 Bonnie May 17, 1887 +29 days
3 July 3 Colin June 11, 1887 +23 days
4 July 14 Danielle Danielle - June 19, 2016 +26 days
5 July 19 Earl Emily - July 11, 2005 +9 days
6 July 19 Fiona Franklin - July 21, 2005 -3 days
7 July 26 Gaston Gert - July 24, 2005 +3 days
8 August 3 Hermine Harvey - August 3, 2005 0 days
9 August 3 Ian Irene - August 7, 2005 -5 days
10 August 3 Julia Jose - August 22, 2005 -20 days
11 August 4 Karl Katrina - August 24, 2005 -21 days
12 August 5 Lisa Luis - August 29, 1995 -25 days
13 August 7 Martin Maria - September 2, 2005 -27 days
14 August 7 Nicole Nate - September 5, 2005 -30 days
15 August 15 Owen Ophelia - September 7, 2005 -24 days
16 August 15 Paula Philippe - September 17, 2005 -34 days
17 August 23 Richard Rita - September 18, 2005 -27 days
18 August 30 Shary Stan - October 2, 2005 -34 days
19 September 4 Tobias Unnamed - October 4, 2005 -31 days
20 September 4 Virginie Tammy - October 5, 2005 -32 days
21 September 7 Walter Vince - October 8, 2005 -32 days
22 September 8 Alpha Wilma - October 17, 2005 -40 days
23 September 14 Beta Alpha - October 22, 2005 -39 days
24 September 16 Gamma Beta - October 27, 2005 -42 days
25 October 8 Delta Gamma - November 18, 2005 -42 days
26 October 9 Epsilon Delta - November 23, 2005 -46 days
27 October 19 Zeta Epsilon - November 29, 2005 -42 days
28 October 19 Eta Zeta - December 29, 2005 -82 days
29 October 21 Theta none N/A
30 November 2 Iota none N/A
31 November 10 Kappa none N/A
32 November 23 Lambda none N/A
33 December 21 Mu none N/A
34 December 25 Nu none N/A

Other records


Season effects

This is a table of all the storms that have formed in the 2022 Atlantic hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s), damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in 2022 . All wind intensities are in mph, with the number in parentheses being the intensity in km/h.

2022 North Atlantic statistics
Dates active Storm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
mph (km/h)
Areas affected Damage

Alex April 22 – 26 Tropical storm 50 (85) 1003 None None None

Bonnie June 14 – 20 Tropical storm 60 (95) 998 Barbados, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Venezuela, Colombia, Puerto Rico $400 million 74

Colin July 3 – 6 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1007 Windward Islands $5 million 3
Four July 6 – 8 Tropical depression 35 (55) 1012 Mexico Minimal None
Danielle July 14 – 23 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 978 Yucatan Peninsula, Florida $1,14 billion 19
Earl July 19 – 26 Tropical storm 50 (85) 997 Nova Scotoa Minimal None
Fiona July 19 – 27 Category 4 hurricane 150 (240) 931 Hispaniola, Jamaica, Yucatan Peninsula $14 billion 5,492
Gaston July 26 – 31 Category 3 hurricane 115 (185) 953 Bermuda $310 million 4

Hermine August 3 – 23 Category 1 hurricane 80 (130) 989 East Coast of United States $900 million 23
Ian August 3 – 13 Category 5 hurricane 160 (270) 932 Lesser Antilles $9,7 billion 105
Julia August 3 – 8 Category 2 hurricane 105 (165) 978 Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Colombia $320 million 23
Twelve August 3 – 3 Tropical depression 30 (45) 1001 Nicaragua, Honduras $1 million 2
Karl August 4 – 16 Category 3 hurricane 120 (195) 962 None None None
Lisa August 5 – 13 Category 2 hurricane 110 (175) 982 None None None
Fifteen August 5 – 7 Tropical depression 25 (35) 1004 Nova Scotia, New England None None
Martin August 7 – September 15 Category 4 hurricane 155 (250) 920 Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Scotland $30,8 billion 813
Nicole August 7 – 14 Tropical storm 65 (100) 992 Gulf Coast of United States, East Coast of United States, Canada $742 million 43
Owen August 15 – 26 Category 5 hurricane 175 (280) 899 Central America, Mexico, Florida Panhandle $58,56 billion 1,034
Paula August 15 – 20 Category 4 hurricane 130 (215) 962 None None None
Richard August 23 – September 4 Category 3 hurricane 120 (195) 965 None None None
Shary August 30 – September 12 Category 5 hurricane 185 (295) 885 Windward Islands, Leeward Islands, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Yucatan Peninsula, Texas $118 billion 9,764

Twenty-two September 2 – September 2 Tropical depression 30 (50) 1001 Cuba, The Bahamas $4 million 31
Tobias September 4 – September 11 Category 5 hurricane 215 (345) 874 The Bahamas, Southern United States $276,5 billion 48,191
Virginie September 4 – September 17 Category 4 hurricane 145 (230) 939 Cuba, Florida, East Coast of the United States $65,2 billion 79
Walter September 7 – September 23 Category 3 hurricane 125 (205) 945 New York City, New England, Atlantic Canada, Greenland $257 billion 504
Alpha September 8 – September 13 Category 2 hurricane 105 (165) 986 Canary Islands, Northwestern Africa, Spain, France $2,09 billion 15
Beta September 14 – September 22 Category 4 hurricane 150 (240) 942 Windward Islands, Northern South America, Panama $1,92 billion 205
Gamma September 16 – October 4 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 982 The Azores $38 million 1

Delta October 8 – October 13 Tropical storm 70 (110) 988 None None None
Epsilon October 9 – October 16 Tropical storm 65 (100) 991 Hispaniola, The Bahamas, Outer Banks, Atlantic Canada $105 million 149
Zeta October 19 – October 30 Tropical storm 50 (85) 986 None None None
Eta October 19 – November 2 Category 4 hurricane 155 (250) 928 Greater Antilles, The Bahamas, Florida, East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada $431 billion 439
Theta October 21 – November 6 Category 1 hurricane 80 (130) 959 None None None

Iota November 3 – November 15 Tropical storm 70 (110) 989 Nicaragua, Honduras, Cayman Islands, Cuba, The Bahamas, East Coast of the United States $870 million 41
Kappa November 10 – November 17 Tropical storm 65 (100) 992 None None 1
Lambda November 23 – December 3 Category 5 hurricane 175 (280) 921 Central America, Cayman Islands, Cuba, The Bahamas, $1,49 billion 14

Mu December 21 – January 4, 2023 Category 1 hurricane 75 (120) 982 None None None
Nu December 25 – December 28 Tropical storm 40 (65) 998 Cuba, Florida $100 million 3
Thirty-nine December 26 – December 27 Tropical depression 35 (55) 1000 Mexico Minimal None
Forty December 28 – December 30 Tropical depression 30 (45) 1004 Lesser Antilles Minimal 1
Season Aggregates
40 systems April 22 –
January 4, 2023
  210 (335) 874 $1,271 trillion 67,073

Storm names

The following list of names will be used for named storms that form in the North Atlantic in 2022. The names not retired from this list will be used again until the 2028 season. This is the same list used in 2016 except for Martin and Owen, which replaced Matthew and Otto.

  • Alex
  • Bonnie
  • Colin
  • Danielle
  • Earl
  • Fiona
  • Gaston
  • Hermine
  • Ian
  • Julia
  • Karl
  • Lisa
  • Martin
  • Nicole
  • Owen
  • Paula
  • Richard
  • Shary
  • Tobias
  • Virginie
  • Walter

Due to extreme activity, the Greek alphabet had to be used for the second time in history, after the 2005 season. The first 13 letters of the Greek alphabet were used up during the season.

  • Alpha
  • Beta
  • Gamma
  • Delta
  • Epsilon
  • Zeta
  • Eta
  • Theta
  • Iota
  • Kappa
  • Lambda
  • Mu
  • Nu
  • Xi (unused)
  • Omicron (unused)
  • Pi (unused)
  • Rho (unused)
  • Sigma (unused)
  • Tau (unused)
  • Upsilon (unused)
  • Phi (unused)
  • Chi (unused)
  • Psi (unused)
  • Omega (unused)


Due to extensive damage and deaths, the names Fiona, Ian, Martin, Owen, Shary, Tobias, Virginie and Walter were officially retired, and will never be used again for an Atlantic hurricane. They were replaced by Frederica, Immanuel, Mario, Odell, Stephanie, Trevor, Veronique and Warren for the 2028 season.

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